Chapter 1 Discovery and Description

Bailey, P.M., and C.D. Tzarnas. “The Sternalis Muscle: A Normal Finding Encountered During Breast Surgery”. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 103, no. 4 (1999): 1189–1190.

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Burgoon, Judee K. “Microexpressions Are Not the Best Way to Catch a Liar.” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018): 1672.

Das, Sushant Swaroop, Sandeep Saluja, and Neelam Vasudeva. “Biometrics of Pyramidalis Muscle and Its Clinical Importance.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 11, no. 2 (2017): AC05-AC07.

De Havas, Jack, Hiroaki Gomi, and Patrick Haggard. “Experimental Investigations of Control Principles of Involuntary Movement: A Comprehensive Review of the Kohnstamm Phenomenon.” Brain Research 235, no. 7 (2017): 1953-1997.

DeLint, J.G.. Altas of the History f Medicine:  Anatomy. New York: Hoeber, 1926.  

Duclos, C., R. Roll, A. Kavounoudias, and J. P. Roll. “Cerebral Correlates of the “Kohnstamm Phenomenon”: an fMRI Study.” Neuroimage 34, no. 2 (2007): 774-83.

Eckman, P. “Facial Expressions of Emotion: An Old Controversy and New Findings. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological 335, no. 1273 (1992): 63-9.

Eknoyan, Garabed. “Michelangelo: Art, Anatomy, and the Kidney.” Kidney International 57, no. 3 (2000): 1190-1201.

Ghosh A., J. Rothwell, and P. Haggard. “Using Voluntary Motor Commands to Inhibit Involuntary Arm Movements.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281 (2014): 20141139.

Grob, Karl, Helen Gilbey, Mirjana Manestar, Timothy Ackland, and Markus S. Kuster. “The Anatomy of the Articularis Genus Muscle and Its Relation to the Extensor Apparatus of the Knee.” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Open Access 2, no. 4 (2017): e0034.

Harrison, R. J., and E. J. Field. Anatomical Terms: Their Origins and Derivation. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Son, 1947.  

Havas, J., H. Gomi, and P. Haggard. “Experimental Investigations of Control Principles of Involuntary Movement: A Comprehensive Review of the Kohnstamm Phenomenon.” Experimental Brain Research, 235, no. 7 (2017): 1953–1997.

Hendriks, I. F., D. A. Zhuravlev, J. G. Govill, F. Boer, I. V. Baivoronskii, P. C. W. Hogendoorn, and M.C. DeRuiter. “Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (1810-1881): Anatomical Research to Develop Surgery.” Clinical Anatomy 33, no. 5 (2020):714-730.

Hilloowala, Rumy. “Michelangelo: Anatomy and Its Implication in His Art.” Vesalius 15, no. 1 (2009): 19-24.

Ioannis, Dimitriou, Katsourakis Anastasios, Natsis KonstantinosKostretzis Lazaros, and Noussios Georgios. “Palmaris Longus Muscle’s Prevalence in Different Nations and Interesting Anatomical Variations: Review of the Literature.” Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 7, no. 11 (2015): 825-830. 

IvanenkoDepartment of Neuromotor Physiology, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, via Ardeatina 306, 00179 Rome, Italy. Y. P., W. G. WrightV. S. GurfinkelF. Horak, and P. Cordo. “Interaction of Involuntary Post-contraction Activity with Locomotor Movements.” Experimental Brain Research 169, no. 2 (2006): 255-260.

Janssen, Ian, Steven B. Heymsfield, ZiMian Wang, and Robert Ross.” Skeletal Muscle Mass and Distribution in 468 Men and Women Aged 18–88 Yr.” Journal of Applied Physiology 89 (2000): 81-88.

Katara, Priyanka, Sangita Chauhan, Rajest Arora, and Panjaj Saini. “A Unilateral Rectus Sternalis Muscle: Rare but Normal Anatomical Variant of Anterior Chest Wall Musculature.” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 7, no. 12 (2013): 2665-2667.

Kemp, Martin. “Style and Non-style in Anatomical Illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.” Journal of Anatomy 216, no. 2 (2010): 192-208.

Kohnstamm, O. “Demonstration einer Katatonieartigen Erscheinung beim Gesunden.” Neurologie Zentralblatt 34 (1915): 290-291.

Lee, Se-Jin, Adam Lehar, Jessica U. Meir, Christina Koch, Andrew Morgan, Lara E. Warren, Renata Rydzik, et al.. “Targeting Myostatin/Activin A Protects Against Skeletal Muscle and Bone Loss During Spaceflight.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, no. 38 (2020): 23942-23951.

Longo, Aldo F., Carlos R. Siffredi, Marcelo L. Cardey, Gustavo D. Aquilino, and Néstor A. Lentini.  “Age of Peak Performance in Olympic Sports: A Comparative Research Among Disciplines.” Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 11, no. 1 (2016): 31-41.

Macalister, A. “Observations on Muscular Anomalies in the Human Anatomy. Third Series with a Catalogue of the Principal Muscular Variations Hitherto Published.” Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy of Science 25 (1875): 1-130. 

Medical Research Council. Aids to the Examination of the Peripheral Nervous System. Memorandum No. 45. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1943.

Miller, A. E. J., J. D. MacDougall, M. A. Tamopolsky, and D. G. Sale. “Gender Differences in Strength and Muscle Fiber Characteristics.” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 66 (1993): 254–262.

Musil, Vladimir, Zdenek SuchomelPetra MalinovaJosef StinglMartin Vlcek, and Marek Vacha. “The History of Latin Terminology of Human Skeletal Muscles (From Vesalius to the Present).”   Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 37 (2015) 33–41.

National Gallery of Art. “Jean-Louis-Earnest Meissonier.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Pereira, Jayme R. “Contraction Automatique des Muscles Stries chez L’homme.” Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale 23, no. 1 (1925):30–38.

Porter, Stephen, and Leanne ten Brinke. “Reading Between the Lies: Identifying Concealed and Falsified Emotions in Universal Facial Expressions.” Psychological Science 19, no. 5 (2008): 508-14.

Shelbourn, Carolyn. “Bringing the Skeletons Out of the Closet: The Law and Human Remains in Art, Archaeology and Museum Collections.” Art Antiquity and Law Journal 11 (2006): 179–198.

Shereen, Rafik, Marios Loukas, and R. Shane Tubs. “Extensor Digitorum Brevis Manus: A Comprehensive Review of this Variant Muscle of the Dorsal Hand.” Cureus 9, no. 8 (2017): e1568.

Soltani, Ali M., Mirna Peric,Cameron S. Francis,Thien-Trang J. Nguyen,Linda S. Chan,Alidad Ghiassi,Milan V. Stevanovic,and Alex K. Wong. “The Variation in the Absence of the Palmaris Longus in a Multiethnic Population of the United States: An Epidemiological Study.” Plastic Surgery International 2012 (2012): 282959.

Spina, Andreo A. “The Plantaris Muscle: Anatomy, Injury, Imaging, and Treatment.” Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 51, no. 3 (2007): 158-65.

Spira, Anthony, Martin Postle, and Paul Bonaventura. “George Stubbs: ‘all done from Nature’.” London: Paul Holberton Publishing, 2019.Spitzer, Victor M., and David G. Whitlock. National Library of Medicine Atlas of the Visible Human Male: Reverse Engineering of the Human Body. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Learning, 1997.

Starr, Michelle. “Some People Can Make a Roaring Sound in Their Ears Just by Tensing a Muscle.” Accessed October 18, 2021.

Stecco, Carla, Warren Hammer, and Andry Vleeming. Functional Atlas of the Humana Fascial System. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2015.

Sun, Xiujun, Zhihong LiuBiao WuLiqing ZhouQi WangWei Wu, and Aiguo Yang. “Differences Between Fast and Slow Muscles in Scallops Revealed Through Proteomics And Transcriptomics.” BMC Genomics 19 (2018): 377. 

Susman, Randall S., Lukhanyo Nyati, and Mandeep S. Jassal. “Observations on the Pollical Palmar Interosseous Muscle (of Henle).”  Anatomical Record 254, no. 2 (1999): 159-165.

Tammie R., David T. MartinBrian Stephens, and Robert T. Withers. “Power Output During a Professional Men’s Road-Cycling Tour. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 1, no. 4 (2006): 324-35.  

Vasari G. The Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. Florence 1550 and 1568. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Voloshin, I., and P. M. Bernini. “Nickolay Ivanovich Pirogoff. Innovative Scientist and Clinician.” Spine. 23, no. 19 (1976): 2143–6.

Weinberger, Sharon. “Airport Security: Intent to deceive?  Nature 465, no. 7297 (2010): 412-5.

Woltmann, Alfred, and Karl Woermann. History of Painting Vol II The Painting of the Renascence. Translated by Clara Bell. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1885.

Wood J. “Variations in Human Myology.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 16 (1868):483-525.

Chapter 2 Molecular Magic

Akasaki, Y., N. Ouchi, Y. Izumiya, B. Bernado, N. LeBrasseur, and K. Walsh. “Glycolytic Fast-twitch Muscle Fiber Restoration Counters Adverse Age-related Changes in Body Composition and Metabolism.” Aging Cell 13, (2013): 80-91.

Al-Khayat, Hind A. “Three-dimensional Structure of the Human Myosin Thick Filament: Clinical Implications.” Global Cardiology and Scientific Practice 2013, no. 3 (2013):280-302.

Austin City College. “Muscle Cell Anatomy and Function.” Accessed October 16, 2021.

Boland, Mike, Lovedeep Kaur, Feng Ming Chian, and Thierry Astruc. “Muscle Proteins.” accessed October 16, 2021.    

Carballido-López, Rut. “The Bacterial Actin-Like Cytoskeleton.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Review 70, no. 4 (2006): 888-909.

Gunning, Peter,  Umesh GhoshdastiderShane WhitakerDavid Popp, and Robert C. Robinson. “The Evolution of Compositionally and Functionally Distinct Actin Filaments.” Journal of Cell Science 128, no. 11 (2015): 2009-12. 

Hamilton, Jon. “Scientists Sent Mighty Mice to Space to Improve Treatments Back on Earth.” Accessed October 16, 2021.

Hartman, M. Amanda, and James A. Spudich. “The Myosin Superfamily at a Glance.” Journal of Cell Science 128, no. 11 (2015): 2009-2019.

Ho, Brandon, Anastasia Baryshnikova, and Grant W. Brown. “Unification of Protein Abundance Datasets Yields a Quantitative Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteome.” Cell Systems 6, no. 2 (2018): 192-205.e3. 

Huxley, H.E. “Past, Present and Future Experiments on Muscle.” Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London B Biological Science 335, no. 1396 (2000): 539-543.

Kanzawa, Nobuyuki, Hiromi Takano-Ohmuro, and Koscak Maruyama. “Isolation and Characterization of Sea Sponge Myosin.”  Zoological Science, 12, (1995):765-769.

Lahr, Daniel J.G., Anush Kosakyan, Enrique Lara, Tomáš Pánek, Seungho Kang, and Matthew W. Brown. “Phylogenomics and Morphological Reconstruction of Aricellinida Testate Amoebae Highlight Diversity of Microbial Eukaryotes in the Neoproterozoic.” Current Biology 29, no. 6 (2019): 991-1001.

Mirjana B Čolović,Mirjana, Danijela Z Krstić,Tamara D Lazarević-PaštiAleksandra M Bondžić,and Vesna M Vasić. “Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology.” Current Neuropharmacology 11, no. 3 (2013) 315-335.

Narici M.V., and N. Maffulli. “Sarcopenia: Characteristics, Mechanisms and Functional Significance.” British Medical Bulletin 95, (2010):139-159.

Nickel, Michael, Corina Scheer, Jörg U. Hammel, Julia Herzen, and Felix Beckmann.” The Contractile Sponge Epithelium Sensu lato – Body Contraction of the Demosponge Tethya wilhelma is Mediated by the Pinacoderm.” Journal of Experimental Biology 214, (2011): 1692-1698.

Nigam, P.K. and Anjana Nigam. “Botulinum Toxin.” Indian Journal of Dermatology 55, no. 1 (2010): 8-14.

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Orizio, Claudio. “Muscle Sound: Bases for the Introduction of a Mechanomyographic Signal in Muscle Studies.” Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 21, no. 3 (1993): 210-43.

Oster, Gerald. “Muscle Sounds.” Scientific American 250, no. 3 (1984): 108-115.

Pollard, Thomas D., and John A. Cooper. “Actin, A Central Player in Cell Shape and Movement.” Science 326, no. 5957 (2009): 1208-1212.

Ross, T. “Myostatin Inhibitors—Do They Work” Is There Another Way to Do It?” Accessed October 16, 2021. 

Sabra, Karim, Stephane Conti, Philippe Roux, and W.A. Kuperman. “Passive in vivo Elastography from Skeletal Muscle Noise.” Applied Physics Letters 90, (2007): 194101.

Stanford University. “The History of Muscles.” Accessed October 16, 2021.

Steinmetz, Patrick R. H., Johanna E. M. Kraus, Claire Larroux, Jörg U. Hammel, Annette Amon-Hassenzahl, Evelyn Houliston, Gert Wörheide, et al. “Independent Evolution of Striated Muscles in Cnidarians and Bilateralians.” Nature, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nature11180

Szent-Györgyi, Andrew G. “The Early History of the Biochemistry of Muscle Contraction.”

Journal of General Physiology 123, no. 6 (2004): 631-641.

White T. A., and N. K. LeBrasseur. “Myostatin and Sarcopenia: Opportunities and Challenges – A Mini-Review.” Gerontology 60 (2014): 289-293.

Yazdi, Puya. “What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects.” Accessed October 16, 2021.    

Chapter 3 Skeletal Muscle

Adams, Valerie, Bernice MathisenSurinder BainesCathy Lazarus, and Robin Callister. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Measurements of Tongue and Hand Strength and Endurance Using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI).” Dysphagia 28, no. 3 (2013): 350-69.

Aminoff, Michael J. Electromyography in Clinical Practice: Clinical and Electrodiagnostic Aspects of Neuromuscular Disease. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.

Azizi, Emanuel, Elizabeth L. Brainerd, and Thomas J. Roberts. “Variable Gearing in Pennate Muscles.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 5 (2008): 1745-1750. 

Barry, D. T.. “Vibrations and Sounds from Evoked Muscle Twitches”. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 32, no. 1-2 (1992): 35–40. 

Bergman, Ronald A. “Anatomy Atlases.”justus Accessed October 18, 2021.

Boisgontier, M. P., I. Olivier, O. Chenu, and V. Nogier. “Presbypropria: The Effects of Physiological Ageing on Proprioceptive Control.” Age 34, no. 5 (2012): 1179-94.

Brooks, Susan V. “Current Topics for Teaching Skeletal Muscle Physiology.” Advances in Physiology Education 27, no. 1-4 (2003): 171-182.

Chandrasekhar, Annapoorna,Noor Azuan Abu Osman,Lai Kuan Tham,Kheng Seang Lim,and Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas. “Influence of Age on Patellar Tendon Reflex Response.” PLoS One 8, no. 11 (2013): e80799.

Clarke, Edwin, and C.D. O’Malley. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord:
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Dikmen, Ebrar. “Embodied Cognition: Change Your Mental Level with Your Body.” Accessed October 18, 2021.

Fujii, Shinya,  Kazutoshi KudoMasahiro ShinyaTatsuyuki Ohtsuki, and Shingo Oda. “Wrist Muscle Activity During Rapid Unimanual Tapping with a Drumstick in Drummers and Nondrummers.” Motor Control 13, no. 3 (2009): 237-50.

Goss, C.M. “On Movement of Muscles by Galen of Pergamon.” American Journal of Anatomy 123, no. 1 (1968): 1-26.

Hung, Iris W., and Aparna A. Labroo. “From Firm Muscles to Firm Willpower: Understanding the Role of Embodied Cognition in Self-Regulation.” Journal of Consumer Research 37, no. 6 (2011): 1046-1064.

Janssen, Ian, Steven B. Heymsfield, and Z. M. Wang. “Skeletal Muscle Mass and Distribution in 468 Men and Women Aged 18-88 Year.”  Journal of Applied Physiology 89, no. 1 (1985): 81-8.

Jackson, A.S., and M.L. Pollock. “Generalized Equations or Predicting Body Density of Men.” British Journal of Nutrition 40, no. 3 (1978): 497-504.

Jackson, A.S., M.L. Pollock, and A. Ward. “Generalized Equations for Predicting Body Density of Women.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12 (1980): 175-182.

Kayalioglu, Gulgun, Baris AltayFeray Gulec UyarogluFikret BademkiranBurhanettin Uludag, and Cumhur Ertekin. “Morphology and Innervation of the Human Cremaster Muscle in Relation to its Function.” Anatomical Record 29, no. 7 (2008): 790-796.

Kemp, Martin. “Style and Non-style in Anatomical Illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.” Journal of Anatomy 216, no. 2 (2010): 192-208.

Kurivan, Rebecca. “Body Composition Techniques.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 148, no. 5 (2018): 648-658.

Mann, Michael D. “The Nervous System in Action.” Accessed October 18, 2021.

Martin, Mollie. “Golgi Tendon Organs and Muscle Spindles Explained.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Martonosi, A.N. “Animal Electricity, Ca2+ and Muscle Contraction. A Brief History of Muscle Research.” Acta Biochimica Polonica 47, no. 3 (2000): 493-516.

 Nelson, Frank E., Justus D. Ortega,Sharon A. Jubrias,Kevin E. Conley,and Martin J. Kushmerick. “High Efficiency in Human Muscle: An Anomaly and an Opportunity?” Journal of Experimental Biology 214, no. 16 (2011): 2649-2653.

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Pearn, John. “A Curious Experiment: The Paradigm Switch from Observation and Speculation to Experimentation, in the Understanding of Neuromuscular Function and Disease.” Neuromuscular Disorders 12, no. 6 (2002): 600-7.

Sabra, Karim, Stephane Conti, Philippe Roux, and William A. Kupperman. “Using Human Body Shear Wave Noise for Passive Elastography.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120, no. 5 (2006) 3270.

Shepherd, John, Bennett NgMarkus Sommer, and Steven B. Heymsfield. “Body Composition by DXA.” Bone 104 (2017): 101-105.

Smith, Nicholas P., Chris Barclay, and Denis Loiselle. “The Efficiency of Muscle Contraction.” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology88, no. 1 (2005): 1-58.

Tuthill, John C., Eiman Azim, and Ian Waterman. “Proprioception.” Current Biology 28, no. 5 (2018): R194-R203.

Verhoef, Sanne P., Stefan G. I. A. Camps, Hanne K. J. Gonnissen, Klaas R. Westerterp, and Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga. “Concomitant Changes in Sleep Duration and Body Weight and Body Composition During Weight Loss and 3-mo Weight Maintenance.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 1 (2013): 25-31.  

Vesalius, Andreas. De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septum. (On the Fabric of the Human Body), translated by William Frank Richardson. San Francisco: Norman Publishing, 1999.

Willis, Adrian. “Herophilus, Erasistratus, and the Birth of Neuroscience.” Lancet 354, no. 9191 (1999): 1719-1720. 

Wilson, Andrew D., and Sabrina Golonka. “Embodied Cognition Is Not What You Think It Is.” Frontiers in Psychology 4 (2013): 58.    

Wirth,Michael D., James R. Hébert, Gregory A. HandShawn D. Youngstedt, Thomas G. Hurley, Robin P. Shook, Amanda E. PaluchXuemei Sui, Shelli L. James, and Steven N. Blair. “Association Between Actigraphic Sleep Metrics and Body Composition.” Annals of Epidemiology 25, no. 10 (2015): 773-8.  

Chapter 4 Smooth Muscle

Aboelkassem, Yasser, and Anne E. Staples. “Selective Pumping in a Network: Insect-Style Microscale Flow Transport.” Bioinspiration and Biomimetics 8, (2013) 026004. 

Ackerknecht, E.H. “The History of the Discovery of the Vegetative (Autonomic) Nervous System.” Medical History 18, no. 1 (1974): 1-8.

Agarwal, Pawan, Shabbir Husain, Sudesh Wankhede, and D. Sharma. “Rectus Abdominis Detrusor Myoplasty (RADM) for Acontractile/Hypocontractile Bladder in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Preliminary Report.” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 71, no. 5 (2018): 736-742.

Amrani, Yassine, and Reynold A Panettieri. “Airway Smooth Muscle: Contraction and Beyond.” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 35, no. 3 (2003): 272-276.

Barišić, Goran, and Zoran Krivokapić. “Adynamic and Dynamic Muscle Transposition Techniques for Anal Incontinence.” Gastroenterology Report 2, no. 2, (2014): 98–105.

Benson, Herbert, John W. Lehmann, M. S. Malhotra, Ralph F. Goldman, Jeffrey Hopkins, and Mark D. Epstein. “Body Temperature Changes During the Practice of G Tum-mo Yoga.”  Nature 295, (1982): 234-236.

Bharadwaj, Shishira, Parul TandonTushar D. GohelJill BrownEzra SteigerDonald F. KirbyAjai Khanna, et al: “Current Status of Intestinal and Multivisceral Transplanation.” Gasteroenterology Report (Oxford) 5, no. 1 (2017): 20-28.  

Bhide, Alka A., Visha Tailor, Ruwan FernandoVik. Khullar, and Giuseppe Alessandro Digesu. “Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation for Overactive Bladder—Techniques and Efficacy.” International Urogynecology Journal 31, no. 5 (2020): 865-870.

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Bornemeier, Walter C. “Sphincter Protecting Hemorrhoidectomy.” American Journal of Proctology 11 (1960): 48-52. 

Bourne, L. E., C. P. Wheeler-Jones, and I. R. Orriss. “Regulation of Mineralisation in Bone and Vascular Tissue: A Comprehensive Review.” Journal of Endocrinology 248, no. 2 (2021): R51-R65. 

Bubenik, George A. “Why Do Humans Get “Goosebumps” When They Are Cold, Or Under Other Circumstances?” Accessed October 17 , 2021.

Buxton, Brian F., and Sean D. Galvin. “The History of Arterial Revascularization: From Kolesov to Tector and Beyond.” Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2, no. 4 (2013): 419-26.

Chen, Jia-Yan, You-Xiang Wang, Ke-Feng Ren, Yun-Bing Wang, Guo-Sheng Fu, and Jian Ji. “The Influence of Substrate Stiffness on Osteogenesis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.” Colloids Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 197, (2021):111388.

Cleveland Clinic. “For the First Time in North America, a Women Gives Birth after Uterus Transplant from a Deceased Donor.” Accessed October 17, 2021. donor/

Cozanitis, Dimitri A. “Daniel Bovet, Nobelist: Muscle Relaxants in Anaesthesia.”  Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift  166, (2016): 487–499.

Cutts, A. “The Range of Sarcomere Lengths in the Muscles of the Human Lower Limb.” Journal of Anatomy 160 (1988):79-88.

Dalziel J. E., N. J. Spencer, and W. Young. “Microbial Signalling in Colonic Motility.” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 134, (2021): 105963.

Deora, Surender. “The Story of ‘STENT’: From Noun to Verb.” Indian Heart Journal 68, no. 2 (2016): 235-237.

Disthabanchong, Sinee. “Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Implication.” World Journal of Nephrology 1, no. 2 (2012): 43-53.

Dunn, P. “John Braxton Hicks (1893-97) and Painless Uterine Contractions.” Archives of Diseases in Children. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 81, no. 2 (1999): F157–F158.

Erickson, K. M., and D. J. Cole. “Carotid Artery Disease: Stenting vs. Endarterectomy.” British Journal of Anaesthesia 105, Suppl 1 (2010): i34-49.

Esser, Falk, Tom Masselter, and Thomas Speck. “Silent Pumpers: A Comparative Topical Overview of the Peristaltic Pumping Principle in Living Nature, Engineering, and Biomimetics.” Advanced Intelligence Systems 1, no. 2 (2019): 1-16. 

Goorsenberg, Annika W. M., Julia N. S. d’Hooghe, Karthikan SrikanthanNick H. T. Ten HackenEls J. M. WeersinkJoris J. T. H. Roelofs, Samuel V. Kemp, et al. “Induced Airway Smooth Muscle Reduction and Clinical Response in Severe Asthma. The TASMA Randomized Trial.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 203, no. 2 (2021): 175-184.  

Griffiths, Thomas A., and Bruce B. Criley. “Comparative Lingual Anatomy of the Bats Desmodus rotundus and Lonchophylla robusta (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).” Journal of Mammalogy 70, no. 3 (1989): 608–613.  

Grootaert, Mandy O. J., and Martin R Bennett. “Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis: Time for a Reassessment.” Cardiovascular Research 117, no. 11 (2021): 2326-2339.

Grubb, Søren, Changsi Cai, Bjørn O. Hald, Lila Khennouf, Reena Prity Murmu, Aske G. K. Jensen, Jonas Fordsmann, et al. “Precapillary Sphincters Maintain Perfusion in the Cerebral Cortex.” Nature Communications. 11, no. 1 (2020): 395.

Gust, Lucile, Xavier-Benoit D’JournoGeoffrey BrioudeDelphine TrousseStephanie DizierChristophe DoddoliMarc Leone, et al. “Single-Lung and Double-Lung Transplantation: Technique and Tips.” Journal of Thoracic Disease 10, no. 4 (2018): 2508-2518.

Gutowski, Piotr, Shawn M. Gage, Malgorzata Guziewicz, Marek Ilzecki, Arkadiusz Kazimierczak, Robert D. Kirkton, Laura E. Niklason, et al. “Arterial Reconstruction with Human Bioengineered Acellular Blood Vessels in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.” Journal of Vascular Surgery 72, no. 4 (2020): 1247-1258.

Hardy, W. B., and W. Macdougall,. “On the Structure and Function of the Alimentary Canal of Daphnia.” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 8 (1895): 41-50.

Harryman, William L, Kendra D. Marr, Daniel Hernandez-Cortes, Raymond B. Nagle, Joe G. N. Garcia, and Anne E. Cress. “Cohesive Cancer Invasion of the Biophysical Barrier of Smooth Muscle.” Cancer Metastasis Review 40, no. 1 (2021): 205-219.

Hayden, Melvin R., Suresh C. Tyagi, Lisa Kolb,James R. Sowers, and Ramesh Khanna. “Vascular Ossification—Calcification in Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Calciphylaxis—Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: The Emerging Role of Sodium Thiosulfate.” Cardiovascular Diabetology 4, (2005): 4.

Héluain, V., L. Guilleminault, C. Hermant, G. Plat, A. Didier, and N. Guibert. In French: “[Bronchial Thermoplasty for Severe Asthma.]” Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 38, no. 3 (2021): 289-296.

Hicks J. B.. “On the Contractions of the Uterus Throughout Pregnancy: Their Physiological Effects and Their Value in the Diagnosis of Pregnancy.” Transactions of the Obstetrical Society of London 13, (1871): 216–31.

Hixon, Thomas J., Jere Mead, and Michael D. Goldman. “Dynamics of the Chest Wall During Speech Production: Function of the Thorax, Rib Cage, Diaphragm, and Abdomen.” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 19, no. 2 (1976): 297-356.

Hu, Desheng, Changjun Yin, Shanshan Luo, Andreas Habenicht, and Sarajo Mohanta. “Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contribute to Atherosclerosis Immunity.”  Frontiers in Immunology 10, (2019): 1101.

Hur, Christine, Jenna RehmerRebecca Flyckt, and Tommaso Falcone. “Uterine Factor Infertility: A Clinical Review.” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 62, no. 2 (2019): 257-270. 

Ilardo, Melissa A., Ida MoltkeThorfinn S. KorneliussenJade ChengAaron J. SternFernando RacimoPeter de Barros Damgaard., et al. “Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads.” Cell 173, no. 3 (2018): 569-580.e15.

Johnson, Leonard R. “Sphincters.” In Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, edited by Leonard R. Johnson., Amsterdam: Academic Press. 2004.

Jones, Benjamin, Abirami Rajamanoharan, Saaliha Vali, Nicola J. Williams, Srdjan Saso, Meen-Yau Thum, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, et al. “Perceptions and Motivations for Uterus Transplant in Transgender Women.” JAMA Network Open. 4, no. 1(2021): e2034561.

Jones, B. P., N. J. Williams, S. Saso,  M‐Y. ThumI Quiroga, J. YazbekS. Wilkinson, et al. “Uterine Transplantation in Transgender Women.” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gyaenocology 126, no. 2, (2019): 152-156.

Jones, T. W. “Discovery That Veins of the Bat’s Wing (Which Are Furnished with Valves) Are Endowed with Rhythmical Contractility and That the Onward Flow of Blood Is Accelerated by Each Contraction.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 142, (1852): 131-136.

Jung-Tak Oh, Jung-Tak, Hong Koh, Eun Young ChangHye Kyung Chang, and Seok Joo Han. “Second Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure in an Infant with Extreme Short Bowel Syndrome.” Journal of Korean Medical Science 27, no. 6 (2012): 701-703.

Karanth, Veena K., T. K. Karanth, and L. Karanth. “Lumbar Sympathectomy Techniques for Critical Lower Limb Ischaemia Due to Non-Reconstructable Peripheral Arterial Disease.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2016, no. 12: (2016): CD011519.

Katayama, Rafael C., Fernando A. M. HerbellaFrancisco Schlottmann, and P. Marco Fisichella. “Lessons Learned from the History of Fundoplication.”  SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine 2 (2020): 775–781.

Kato, T., S. J. LobrittoA. TzakisY. RavehP. R. SandovalM. MartinezL. Granowetter, et al. “Multivisceral Ex Vivo Surgery for Tumors Involving Celiac and Superior Mesenteric Arteries.” American Journal of Transplantation 12, no. 5 (2012): 1323-1328. 

Kegel, A. H. “The Nonsurgical Treatment of Genital Relaxation; Use of the Perineometer as an Aid in Restoring Anatomic and Functional Structure.” Annals of Western Medicine and Surgery 2, no. 5 (1948): 213-6.

Kesseli, S. and D. Sudan: “Small Bowel Transplantation.” Surgical Clinics of North America 99, no. 1 (2019): 103-116.

Kido, Aki, Susan M. Ascher, Keiko Kishimoto, and Winnie Hahn. “Comparison of Uterine Peristalsis Before and After Uterine Artery Embolization at 3-T MRI.” American Journal of Roentgenology 196, (2011): 1431-1435.

Kim, Jun Hyung, Byung Jun SoSeung Jae Byun, and Kyung Yun Kim. “The Advantage of Common Femoral Endarterectomy Alone or Combined with Endovascular Treatment.” Vasscular Specialist International 34, no. 3 (2018): 65-71. 

Kirkton, Robert D., Maribel Santiago-Maysonet, Jeffrey H. Lawson, William E. Tente, Shannon L. M. Dahl, Laura E. Niklason, and Heather L. Prichard. “Bioengineered Human Acellular Vessels Recellularize and Evolve into Living Blood Vessels after Human Implantation.” Science Translational Medicine 11, no. 485 (2019): eaau6934.

Kiroglu, A. Faruk, Hasmet BayrakliKoksal YucaHakan Cankaya, and Muzaffer Kiris. “Nasal Obstruction as a Common Side-Effect of Sildenafil Citrate.” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 208, no. 3 (2006): 251-254.

Krishnan, Jerry A., and Aliya N. Husain. “One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: Bronchial Thermoplasty for Asthma.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 203, no. 2 (2021): 153-154.

Kozhevnikov, Maria, James Elliott,Jennifer Shephard,and Klaus Gramann. “Neurocognitive and Somatic Components of Temperature Increases during g-Tummo Meditation: Legend and Reality.” PloS One 8, no. 3 (2013): e58244.

Lehur, Paul-Antoine, Shane McNevinSteen BuntzenAnders F. MellgrenSoeren Laurberg, and Robert D. Madoff. “Magnetic Anal Sphincter Augmentation for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence: A Preliminary Report from a Feasibility Study.” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 53, no. 12 (2010):1604-1610.

Lindsley, D. B., and W. H. Sassman. “Autonomic Activity and Brain Potentials Associated with Voluntary Control of the Pilomotaors (MM. Arrectores Pilorum).” Journal of Neurophysiology 1 (1938):342.

Liron, N. “A New Look at Peristalsis and Its Functions.” Horizons in Biochemistry and Biophysics 5, (1978): 161-182.   

Lu, S. C. “[A Study on the Histologic Basis of Human Bile Duct Peristalsis.]” [article in Chinese] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 27, no. 2 (1989): 116-1117, 127.  

Luo, Jiesi, Yuyao Lin, Xiangyu ShiGuangxin LiMehmet H. Kural, Christopher W. Anderson, Matthew W. Ellis, et al. “Xenogeneic-free Generation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Vascular Tissue Engineering.” Acta Biomaterialia 119 (2021): 155-168.

Maeda, Yasuko, Søren Laurberg, and Christine Norton. ”Perianal Injectable Bulking Agents as Treatment for Faecal Incontinence in Adults.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2013, no. 2 (2013): CD007959. 

Magalhaes, Renata S., J. Koudy WilliamsKyung W. YooJames J. Yoo, and Anthony Atala. “A Tissue-Engineered Uterus Supports Live Birth in Rabbits. Nature Biotechnology  38 (2020): 1280–1287.

Marsden, C. D., and J. C. Meadows. “The Effect of Adrenaline on the Contraction of Human Muscle.” Journal of Physiology 207, no. 2 (1970): 429-448.

Martarelli D., M. Cocchioni, S. Scuri, anc P. Pompei. “Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress.” Evid Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, (2011): 932430.

Matsumoto C. S., S. Subramanian, and T. M. Fishbein. “Adult Intestinal Transplantation.” Gasteroenterology Clinics of North America 47, no. 2 (2018): 341-354.

Mitzner, Wayne. “Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma.” Allergology International 55, no. 3 (2006): 225-234.

Mitzner, Wayne. “Airway Smooth Muscle: The Appendix of the Lung.” Americian Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 169, no. 7 (2004): 787-90.

Mookerjee, Vikram G., and Daniel Kwan. “Uterus Transplantation as a Fertility Option in Transgender Health Care.” International Journal of Transgender Health, 21, no. 2 (2021): 122-124.

Nguyen, J. V. “The Biology, Structure, and Function of Eyebrow Hair.Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. 13, no. 1 Suppl, (2014): s12-6.

Nishino, Takashi. “The Swallowing Reflex and Its Significance as an Airway Defensive Reflex.” Frontiers in Physiology 3, no. 489 (2012): 1-6.

Jones B. P., N. J. Williams, S. Saso, M-Y Thum, I. Quiroga, J. Yazbek, S. Wilkinson, S. Ghaem-Maghami, P. Thomas, and Smith JR. “Uterine Transplantation in Transgender Women.” BJOG 126 (2019): 152–15.

Nyangoh, Timoh K., D. Moszkowicz, M. Creze, M. Zaitouna, M. Felber, C. Lebacle, D. Diallo,  et al. “The Male External Sphincter is Autonomically Innervated.” Clinical Anatomy 34, no. 2 (2021): 263-271.

Oregon State University. “10.7 Smooth Muscle Tissue.” Accessed October 17, 2021.

Oshiro, Takuma, Ryu KimuraKeiichiro IzumiAsuka AshikariSeiichi Saito, and Minoru Miyazato. “Changes in Urethral Smooth Muscle and External Urethral Sphincter Function with Age in Rats.” Physiological Reports 8, no. 24 (2021): e14643.

Panneton, W. Michael. “The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life?” Physiology (Bethesda) 28, no. 5 (2013): 284–297. 

Paul, R. J. “Smooth Muscle Energetics and Theories of Cross-Bridge Regulation.” American Journal of Physiology 258, no. 2 (1990): C369-75.

Paus, I., I. BurgoaC. I. PlattT. GriffithsE. Poblet, and A. Izeta. “Biology of the Eyelash Hair Follicle: An Enigma in Plain Sight.” British Journal of Dermatology 174, no. 2 (2016): 741-52.  

Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo, and Mario Pescatori. “Sphinteroplasty for Anal Incontinence.” Gastroenterology Report (Oxford) 2, no. 2 (2014): 92-97.

Pickering, Mark, and James F. X. Jones: “The Diaphragm: Two Physiological Muscles in One.” Journal of Anatomy 201, no. 4 (2002): 305-312.

Poblet, E. F. Ortega, and F. Jiménez. “The Arrector Pili Muscle and the Follicular Unit of the Scalp: A Microscopic Anatomy Study.” Dermatologic Surg. 28, no. 9 (2002): 800-3.

Pollandt, Sebastian, and Thomas P. Bleck. “Thermoregulation: From Basic Neuroscience to Clinical Neurology, Part II.” Handbook of Clinical Neurology 157 (2018): 2-895.

Pollard, Stephen. “Small Bowel Transplantation.” Clinics in Colon Rectal Surgery 17, no. 2 (2004): 119-124.

Rajendram, R., and A. Hayward. “Ultrasound-Guided Digital Sympathectomy Using Botulinum Toxin.” Anaesthesia 68, no. 10 (2013): 1077.

Sarveazad, Arash, Asrin BabahajianNaser AminiJebreil Shamseddin, and Mahmoud Yousefifard. “Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Fecal Incontinence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. 10, no. 5 (2019): 419–431.

Sato A., K. E. Toyoshima, H. Toki, N. Ishibashi, K. Asakawa, A. Iwadate, T. Kanayama T, et al.  “Singular Follicular Unit Transplantation Reconstructs Arrector Pili Muscle and Nerve Connections and Restores Functional Hair Follicle Piloerection.” Journal of Dermatology 39, no. 8 (2012): 682-687.

Serrano, César, and Suzanne George. “Leiomyosarcoma.” Hematology and Oncology Clinics of North America 27, no. 5 (2013): 957-974. 

Sláma, Karel, and Jan Lukáš. “Myogenic Nature of Insect Heartbeat and Intestinal Peristalsis, Revealed by Neuromuscular Paralysis Caused by the Sting of a Braconid Wasp.” Journal of Insect Physiology 57, no 2 (2011): 251-259.

Smith, Edwin A., Jonathan D. KayeJohn Y. LeeAndrew J. Kirsch, and Joseph K. Williams. “Use of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Flap as Adjunct to Bladder Neck Closure in Patients with Neurogenic Incontinence: Preliminary Experience.” Journal of Urology 183, no. 4 (2010): 1556-1560.

Song, Wu-Chul, Weon-Jung HwangChuog Shin, and Ki-Seok Koh. “A New Model for the Morphology of the Arrector Pili Muscle in the Follicular Unit Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction. Journal of Anatomy 208, no. 5 (2006): 643-648.

Spooner, Madelyn K, Yasser Y. Lenis, Rachel Watson, Daniela Jaimes, and Amanda L. Patterson. “The Role of Stem Cells in Uterine Involution.” Reproduction 161, no. 3 (2021): R61-R77.

Torkamani, Niloufar, Nicholas W. Rufaut, Leslie Jones, and Rodney D. Sinclair. “Beyond Goosebumps: Does the Arrector Pili Muscle Have a Role in Hair Loss?” International Journal of Trichology. 6, no. 3 (2014): 88-94.

Trimarchi, Matteo, Andrea SaloniaStefano BondiFrancesco Montorsi, and Mario Bussi. “Nasal Congestion after Visual Sexual Stimulation with and Without Sildenafil (Viagra): A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.” European Archives of Otorhinolaryngology 265, no. 3 (2008): 303-306.

Tschapka, Marco, Tania P. Gonzalez-Terrazas, and Mirjam Knörnschild. “Nectar Uptake in Bats Using a Pumping-Tongue Mechanism.”Science Advances  1, no 8 (2015): e1500525.

Tzoumas N., T.E. Farrah, N. Dhaun, D.J. Webb. “Established and Emerging Therapeutic Uses of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease.” British Journal of Pharmacology. 177, no. 24 (2019): 5467–5488.

Tzvetanov, Ivo G., Kiara A. Tulla, Giuseppe D’Amico, and Enrico Benedetti. “Living Donor Intestinal Transplantation.” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 47, no. 2 (2018): 369-380.

Wan, Juyi, Xiaolin Zhong, Zhiwei Xu, Da Gong, Diankun Li, Zhifei Xin, Xiaolong Ma, et al. “A Decellularized Porcine Pulmonary Valved Conduit Embedded with Gelatin.” Artificial Organs 45, no. 9 (2021): 1068-1082.

WatsonM. J., N. Kundu, C. Coppa, R. Djohan, K. Hashimoto, B. Eghtesad, M. Fujiki M, et al.“Role of Tissue Expanders in Patients with Loss of Abdominal Domain Awaiting Intestinal Transplantation.” Transplant International. 26, no. 12 (2013): 1184-1190.

Webb, R. Clinton. “Smooth Muscle Contraction and Relaxation.” Advances in Physiology Education 27, no. 1-4 (2003): 201-6. 

Whitehead A. K., A. P. Erwin, and X. Yue. “Nicotine and Vascular Dysfunction.” Acta Physiologica (Oxford) 17(2021): e13631.

Wiedeman M. P., R. F. Tuma, and H. N.Mayrovitz. “Defining the Precapillary Sphincter.” Microvascular Research 12, no. 1 (1976): 71-75.

Witcombe, Brian, and Dan Meyer: “Sword Swallowing and Its Side Effects.” British Medical Journal 333, no. 7582 (2006): 1285-1287.

Yuan, Cheng, Lihua NiChangjiang ZhangXiaorong Hu, and Xiaoyan Wu. “Vascular Calcification: New Insights into Endothelial Cells.” Microvascular Research 134, (2021): 104-105.

Zehr, Bradley P., Charles J. NiblickHeidi Downey, and Joseph S. Ladowski. “Limb Salvage with CryoVein Cadaver Saphenous Vein Allografts Used for Peripheral Arterial Bypass: Role of Blood Compatibility.” Annals of Vascular Surgery 25, no. 2 (2011): 177-181.

Zhao, Jian, Zhaoyu Liu, Zhihui Chang. “Osteogenic Differentiation and Calcification of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells is Induced by the RCN2/STAT3/miR-155-5p Feedback Loop.” Vascular Pharmacology 136, (2021): 106821.

Zimmerman, Anne, David Burnuit, Christoph GerlingerMatthias Schaefers, and Katharina Geppert. “Prevalence, Symptoms and Management of Uterine Fibroids: An International Internet-Based Survey of 21,746 Women.” BMC Womens Health 12, (2012): 6.

Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo, Cicero Urban, and André Vallejo. “Anatomy of the Nipple and Breast Ducts.” Gland Surg 5, no. 1 (2016): 32-36.

Chapter 5 Cardiac Muscle   

American Heart Association. “The past, present and future of the device keeping alive Carew, thousands of HF patients.” Accessed October 15, 2021 

Aranki, Sary. “Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Graft Choices.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Bakhtiyar, Syed Shahyan, Elizabeth L. Godfrey, Shayan AhmedHarveen LambaJeffrey MorganGabriel LoorAndrew Civitello, et al.  “Survival on the Heart Transplant Waiting List.” JAMA Cardiology 5, no. 11 (2020): 1227-1235.

Barclay, Chris,  C. Widén, and C. J. Mellors. “Initial Mechanical Efficiency of Isolated Cardiac Muscle.” Journal of Experimental Biology 206, no. 16 (2003): 2725-32.

Barron, S. L. “Development of the Electrocardiograph in Great Britain.” British Medical Journal 1, no. 4655 (1950): 720-725. 

Barsheshet, Alon, Andrew BrenyoArthur J Moss, and Ilan Goldenberg. “Genetics of Sudden Cardiac Death.” Current Cardiology Reports 13, no. 5 (2011): 364-76.

Becnel, Miriam, and Selim R. Krim. “Left Ventricular Assist Devices in the Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 32, no. 5 (2019): 41-46.  

Bergmann, Olaf, Ratan D. Bhardwaj, Samuel Bernard, Sofia Zdunek, Fanie Barnabé-Heider, Stuart Walsh, Joel Zupicich, et al. “Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans.” Science  324, no. 5923 (2009): 98-102.

Bishopric, Nanette H. “Evolution of the Heart from Bacteria to Man.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1047, (2005): 13-29.

Bolling, S.F.,  I.A. Smolens, and F.D. Pagani. “Surgical Alternatives for Heart Failure.” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 20, no. 7 (2001): 729-33.

Braunwald, Eugend: “Cell-Based Therapy in Cardiac Regeneration: An Overview.” Circulation Research 123, no. 2 (2018): 132-137.

Brenner, Paolo, and Maks Mihalj. “Update and Breakthrough in Cardiac Xenotransplantation.” Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation 25, no. 3 (2020): 261-267.

Calabrese, Ronald L., and Cozzens, Christine S. “Heart (Invertebrate).” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Curfman G. “Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Failure: An Unfulfilled Promise?” JAMA 321 (2019): 1186-7.

Dickstein, K., A. Cohen-Solal, G. Filippatos, J.J. McMurray, P. Ponikowski, P.A. Poole-Wilson, A. Strömberg, et al.  “ESC Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology.” European Heart Journal 29, no. 19 (2008): 2388-442.

Dimengo, J.M. “Surgical Alternatives in the Treatment of Heart Failure.” AACH Clinical Issues 92, (1998):192-207.

Domingues, José Sérgio, Marcos de Paula Vale, and Marcos Pinotti Barbosa. “Partial Left Ventriculectomy: Have Well-Succeeded Cases and Innovations in the Procedure Been Observed in the Last 12 Years?” Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 30, no. 5 (2015): 579-585.

Duan, Dongsheng, and Jerry R. Mendell, editors. Muscle Gene Therapy. Second Edition. New York: Springer, 2019.

Edwards, Jena  E., Elizabeth Hiltz, Franziska Broell, Peter G. Bushnell, Steven E. Campana, Jørgen S. Christiansen, Brynn M. Devine, et al. “Advancing Research for the Management of Long-Lived Species: A Case Study on the Greenland Shark.” Frontiers in Marine Science 6 (2019): 87.

Eisenman, Arie. “Troponin Assays for the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndrome: Where Do We Stand?” Expert Review in Cardiovascular Therapy 4, no. 4 (2006): 509-14.

Fahlman, Andreas, Bruno Cozzi, Mercey Manley, Sandra Jabas, Marek Malik, Ashley Blawas, and Vincent M. Janik. “Conditioned Variation in Heart Rate During Static Breath-Holds in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).” Frontiers in Physiology 11 (2020): 604018.

Fernández-Ruiz, Irene. “Breakthrough in Heart Xenotransplantation.” Nature Reviews Cardiology 16, no. 2 (2019): 69.

Fifer, Michael A. “Most Fully Informed Patients Choose Septal Ablation Over Septal Myectomy.” Circulation 116, no. 2 (2007): 207-216.

Gao, L., and J. J. Zhang: “Efficient Protocols for Fabricating a Large Human Cardiac Muscle Patch from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Methods in Molecular Biology  2158 (2021): 187-197.

GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. “Global, Regional, and National Incidence, Prevalence, and Years Lived With Disability for 310 Diseases and Injuries, 1990–2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.” Lancet 388, no. 1003 (2016): 1545-1602.

Gerosa, Gino, Silvia Scuri, Laura Jop, and Gianluca Torregrossa. “Present and Future Perspectives on Total Artificial Hearts.” Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 3, no. 6 (2014): 595-602.

Ghiroldi A., M. Piccoli, G. Ciconte, C. Pappone, and L. Anastasia. “Regenerating the Human Heart: Direct Reprogramming Strategies and Their Current Limitations.Basic Research in Cardiiology 112, no. 6 (2017): 68.

Goldbogen, J. A., D. E. Cade, J. Calambokidis, M. F. Czapanskiy, J. Fahlbusch, A. S. Friedlaender, W. T. Gough, et al. “Extreme Bradycardia and Tachycardia in the World’s Largest Animal.”  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116, no. 50 (2019): 25329-25332.
Goff, Z. D., A. B. Kichura, J. T. Chibnall, and P. J. Hauptman. “A Survey of Unregulated Direct-To-Consumer Treatment Centers Providing Stem Cells for Patients with Heart Failure.”  JAMA Internal Medicine 177, no. 9 (2017):1387-1388.

Han, Jooli, and Dennis R. Trumble: “Cardiac Assist Devices: Early Concepts, Current Technologies, and Future Innovations.” Bioengineering (Basel) 6, no. 1 (2019): 18.

Harris, K. M., S. Mackey-Bojack, M. Bennett, D. Nwaudo, E. Duncanson, and B. J. Maron. “Sudden Unexpected Death Due to Myocarditis in Young People.” American Journal of Cardiology 143 (2021): 131-134.

Hayward, M. “Dynamic Cardiomyoplasty: Time to Wrap It Up?Heart 82, no. 3 (1999): 263-264. 

He, Lingjuan, and Bin Zhou. “Cardiomyocyte Proliferation: Remove Brakes and Push Accelerators.” Cell Research 27 (2017): 959–960.

Heldman, Alan W., Katherine C. WuTheodore P. Abraham, and Duke E. Cameron. “Myectomy or Alcohol Septal Ablation Surgery and Percutaneous Intervention Go Another Round.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 49, no. 3 (2007): 358-360.

Hetzer, Roland, Mariano Francisco del Maria Javier, Frank Wagner, Matthias Loebe, and Eva Maria Javier Delmo. “Organ-saving Surgical Alternatives to Treatment of Heart Failure.” Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 11, no. 1 (2021): 213-225.

Hoffmeier, Andreas, Jürgen R. Sindermann, Hans H. Scheld, and Sven Martens. “Cardiac Tumors—Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment.”  Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 111, no. 12 (2014): 205–211.

Huang, Ke, Emily W. Ozpinar, Teng Su, Junnan Tang, Deliang Shen, Li Qiao, Shiqi Hu et al. “An Off-the-Shelf Artificial Cardiac Patch Improves Cardiac Repair After Myocardial Infarction in Rats and Pigs.”  Science Translational Medicine 12, no. 538 (2020): eaat9683.

McMurray, John J. V., and Marc A. Pfeffer. “Heart Failure.”  Lancet 365, no. 9474 (2005): 1877-1899.

Kaye, Alan D., Allyson L. Spence, Mariah Mayerle, Nitish Sardana, Claire M. Clay, Matthew R. Eng, Markus M. Luedi, et al. “Impact of COVID-19 Infection on the Cardiovascular System: An Evidence-Based Analysis of Risk Factors and Outcomes.” Best Practices and Research in Clinical Anaesthesiology 35, no. 3 (2021): 437-448.

Li W., S. A. Su, J. Chen, H. Ma, and M. Xiang. “Emerging Roles of Fibroblasts in Cardiovascular Calcification.” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 25, no. 4 (2021): 1808-1816. 

Leier, Carl V. “Editorial Comment Cardiomyoplasty: Is It Time to Wrap It Up?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 28, no. 5 (1996): 1181-2.

Lim, Gregory B. “An Acellular Artificial Cardiac Patch for Myocardial Repair.” Nature Reviews Cardiology 17, (2020): 220.

Long, Ashleigh, and Paul Mahoney. “Use of Mitral Clip to Target Obstructive SAM in Severe Diffuse-Type Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Case Report and Review of Literature.” Journal of Invasive Cardiology 32, no. 9 (2020): E228-E232d.

Mallidi, Hari R., and Michael Bates. “Pacemaker Use Following Heart Transplantation.” Ochsner Journal 17, no. 1 (2017): 20-24.

Maron, B.J. “Historical Perspectives on Sudden Deaths in Young Athletes with Evolution Over 35 Years.” American Journal of Cardiology 116, no. 9 (2015): 1461-8.

Maron, B. J., T. S. Haas, A. Ahluwalia, C. J. Murphy, and R. F. Garberich. “Demographics and Epidemiology of Sudden Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes: From the United States National Registry.” American Journal of Medicine 129, no. 11 (2016: 1170-1177.

Martin, A. W. “Circulation in Invertebrates.” Annual Review of Physiology 36, (1974): 171-86. 

Martinez, W. Matthew, Andrew M. Tucker, O. Josh Bloom, Gary Green, John P. DiFiori, Gary Solomon, Dermot Phelan, et al. “Prevalence of Inflammatory Heart Disease Among Professional Athletes with Prior COVID-19 Infection Who Received Systematic Return-to-Play Cardiac Screening.” JAMA Cardiology 6, no. 7 (2021): 745-752.

Mayrogeni, Sophie, George Marousis-Mayrogenis, Antigoni Papavasiliou, and Genovefa Koloyou. “Cardiac Involvement in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy.” World Journal of Cardiology 7, no. 7 (2015): 410-414.

McCarthy ,P. M., R. C. StarlingJ. WongG. M. ScaliaT. BudaR. L. VargoM. GoormasticJ. D. ThomasN. G. Smedira, and J. B. Young. “Early Results with Partial Left Ventriculectomy.” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 114, no. 5 (1997): 755-63.

McGregor, Christopher G. A., and W. Byrne Guerand. “Porcine Human Heart Transplantation: Is Clinical Application Now Appropriate?” Journal of Immunology Research 2017 (2017): 2534653.

McMurray, John J. V.. “Clinical Practice. Systolic Heart Failure.” New England Journal of Medicine 362, no. 3 (2010): 228-238.

Mei, Xuan, and Ke Cheng. “Recent Development in Therapeutic Cardiac Patches.” Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 27, no. 7 (2020): 610364.

Meier, Raphael P. H., Alban LongchampMuhammad MohiuddinOriol ManuelGeorgios VrakasDaniel G. MalufLeo H. BuhlerYannick D. Muller, and Manuel Pascual. “Recent Progress and Remaining Hurdles Toward Clinical Xenotransplantation’” Xenotransplantation. (2021) Mar 23;e12681

Metra, Marco, and John R. Teerlink. “Heart Failure.” Lancet 390, no. 10106 (2017: 1981-1995.

National Cancer Institute. “Matters of the Heart: Why Are Cardiac Tumors So Rare?” Accessed October 15, 2021.

Paiman, Elisabeth H. M.,and Hildo J. Lamb. “When Should We Use Contrast Material in Cardiac MRI?” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 46, no. 6 (2018): 1551-1572.

Panneton, Michael W., Qi Gan, and Raiko Juric. “The Rat: A Laboratory Model for Studies of the Diving Response.” Journal of Applied Physiology 108, no. 4 (2010): 811-821.

Parmacek, Michael S., and Jonathan A. Epstein. “Cardiomyocyte Renewal.” New England Journal of Medicine 361, no. 1 (2009): 86-88.

Payne, Jessie Rose, David Charles Brodbelt, andVirginia Luis Fuentes. “Cardiomyopathy Prevalence in 780 Apparently Healthy Cats in Rehoming Centers (The CatScan Study).” Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 17, Suppl 1 (2015): S244-257

Piccolino, Marco. “Luigi Galvani’s path to animal electricity.” Comptes Rendus Biologies 329, no. 5-6 (2006): 303-318.

Piccolino, Marco. “Animal Electricity and the Birth of Electrophysiology: The Legacy of Luigi Galvani.” Brain Research Bulletin. 46, no. 5 (1998): 381-407.Pierson III, Richard N., Jay A. Fishman, Gregory D. Lewis, David A. D’Alessandro, Margaret R. Connolly, Lars Burdorf, Joren C. Madsen, and Agnes M. Azimzadeh. “Progress Toward Cardiac Xenotransplantation.”  Circulation 142, (2020):1389–1398.

Puntman, Valentina, Ludovica Carerj, Imke Wieters, Masia Fahim, Christophe Arendt, Jedrzej Hoffmann, Anastasia Shchendrygina, et al. “Outcomes of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients Recently Recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).”  JAMA Cardiology 5, no. 11, (2020): 1265-1273.

Quick, Nicola J., William R Cioffi, Jeanne M ShearerAndreas Fahlman, and Andrew J Read. “Extreme Diving in Mammals: First Estimates of Behavioural Aerobic Dive Limits in Cuvier’s Beaked Whales.” Journal of Experimental Biology 23, no. 223 (Pt 18) (2020): jeb 222109.

Rajpal, Saurabh, Matthew S. Tong, James Borchers, Karolina M. Zareba, Timothy P. Obarski, Orlando P. Simonetti, and Curt J. Daniels. “Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Findings in Competitive Athletes Recovering From COVID-19 Infection.” JAMA Cardiology 6, no. 1 (2021); 116-118.

Raghavendra, B. R., S. TellesN. K. ManjunathK. K. DeepakK. V. Naveen, and P. Subramanya. “Voluntary Heart Rate Reduction Following Yoga Using Different Strategies.” International Journal of Yoga 6, no. 1 (2013): 26-30.

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Rose, Noel. “Viral Myocarditis.” Current Opinion in Rheumatology 28, no. 4 (2016): 383-389.

Russo, Marco A., Danielle M. Santarelli, and Dean O’Rourke. “The Physiological Effects of Slow Breathing in the Healthy Human.” Breathe (Sheffield) 13, no. 4 (2007): 298-309.

Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian,  Carme Perez-QuilisRoman Leischik, and Alejandro Lucia. “Epidemiology of Coronary Heart Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome.” Annals of Translational Medicine 4, no. 13 (2016): 256.

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Sharma, S., P. G. Jackson, and J. Makan. “Cardiac Tropins.” Journal of Clinical Pathology 57, no. 10 (2004): 1025-1026.  

Sherrid, Mark V., Daniele Massera, and Daniel G. Swistell. “Surgical Septal Myectomy and Alcohol Ablation: Not Equivalent in Efficacy or Survival.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 79, no. 17 (2022): 1656-1659.

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Chapter 6 Conditioning

Adkins, DeAnna L., and Jeffery Boychuck. “Motor Training Induces Experience Specific Patterns of Plasticity Across Motor Cortex and Spinal Cord”Journal of Applied Physiology 101, no. 6 (2006): 1776–1782.

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Armstrong, Brock. “Do Amino Acids Build Bigger Muscles?” Accessed October 21, 2021.   

Armstrong, Brock. “How to Maximize Your Workout with Push-Pull Strength Training.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Bachman, Rachel. “An Olympian, a Failed Drug Test and an Accused Burrito.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Bagheri, Reza, Babak Hooshmand Moghadam, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Dandow, Andrew J. Galpin, Mozhgan Eskandari, Richard B. Kreider, and Alexie Wong. “Whole Egg vs. Egg White Ingestion During 12 weeks of Resistance Training in Trained Young Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 35, no. 2 (2021): 411-419.

Baker, B. S., M. S. Stannard, D. L. Duren, J. L. Cook, and J. P. Stannard. “Does Blood Flow Restriction Therapy in Patients Older Than Age 50 Result in Muscle Hypertrophy, Increased Strength, or Greater Physical Function? A Systematic Review.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 478, no. 3 (2020): 593-606. 

Berger, Joshua, Oliver LudwigStephan BeckerMarco BackfischWolfgang Kemmler, and Michael Fröhlich. “Effects of an Impulse Frequency Dependent 10-Week Whole-body Electromyostimulation Training Program on Specific Sport Performance Parameters.” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 19, no. 2 (2020): 271-281.

Black, Jonathan. “Charles Atlas: Muscle Man.” Accessed October 20, 2021. 

Blocquiaux, Sara, Tatiane GorskiEvelien Van RoieMonique RamaekersRuud Van ThienenHenri NielensChristophe DelecluseKatrien De Bock, and Martine Thomis. “The Effect of Resistance Training, Detraining and Retraining on Muscle Strength and Power, Myofibre Size, Satellite Cells and Myonuclei in Older Men.” Experimental Gerontology 133 (2020): 110860.

Bowman, Eric N., Rami ElshaarHeather Milligan, Gregory Jue, Karen Mohr, Patty Brown, Drew M. Watanabe, and Orr Limpisvasti. “Proximal, Distal, and Contralateral Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on the Lower Extremities: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Sports Health 11, no. 2 (2019): 149-156.

Bowman,Eric N., Rami ElshaarHeather MilliganGregory JueKaren MohrPatty BrownDrew M. Watanabe, and Orr Limpisvasti. “Upper-Extremity Blood Flow Restriction: The Proximal, Distal, and Contralateral Effects-A Randomized Controlled Trial” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 29, no. 6 (2020): 1267-1274.

Brandner, C. R., and S. A. Warmington. “Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Perceived Exertion after Blood Flow Restriction Exercise.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 31, no. 11 (2017):3101-3108.

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Burbank, Luke. “Major League Baseball to Investigate Steroid Use.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

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Calderone, Julia, and Ben Fogelson. “Fact or Fiction?: The Tongue Is the Strongest Muscle in the Body.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Carr, Joshua C., Xin YeMatt S. StockMichael G. Bemben, and Jason M. DeFreitas. “The Time Course of Cross-Education During Short-Term Isometric Strength Training.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 119 (2019): 1395–1407.

Damas, Felipe, Cleiton A. Libardi, and Carlos Ugrinowitsch. “The Development of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Through Resistance Training: The Role of Muscle Damage and Muscle Protein Synthesis.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 118, no. 3 (2018): 485-500.

Dalleck, Lance C., and Len Kravitz. “The History of Fitness.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Dankel S. J., M. B. Jessee, T. Abe, and J. P. Loenneke. “The Effects of Blood Flow Restriction on Upper-Body Musculature Located Distal and Proximal to Applied Pressure.Sports Medicine 46, no. 1 (2016) 23-33.

Demontis, Fabio, Rosanna Piccirillo,Alfred L. Goldberg, and Norbert Perrimon. “The Influence of Skeletal Muscle on Systemic Aging and Lifespan.” Aging Cell 12, no. 6 (2013): 943-9.

Down, Steve. “Strictly Strychnine – Medicines to be Avoided by Athletes.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Engelen, Mariëlle P. K. J., and Nicholaas E. P. Deutz. “Is HMB an Effective Anabolic Agent to Improve Outcome in Older Diseased Populations?”  Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 21, no. 3 (2018): 207-213.

Fair, John D.  Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York Barbell. University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 1999.

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Fisher, James, James Steele, Pat McKinnon, and Stephen McKinnon. “Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults.” Journal of Sports Medicine 2014 (2014):731890. “The 5 Best Personal Trainer Certifications.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Fleckenstein, Daniel, Olaf UeberschärJan C WüstenfeldPeter Rüdrich, and Bernd Wolfarth.. “Effect of Uphill Running on VO 2, Heart Rate and Lactate Accumulation on Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmills.” Sports (Basel) 9, no. 4 (2021): 51.

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Garber, Carol Ewing, Bryan BlissmerMichael R. DeschenesBarry A. FranklinMichael J. LamonteI-Min LeeDavid C. NiemanDavid P. Swain, and the American College of Sports Medicine. “American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, and Neuromotor Fitness in Apparently Healthy Adults: Guidance for Prescribing Exercise.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 43, no. 7 (2011): 1334-59.

Gomez, Cabrera M. C., E. Domenech, M. Romagnoli, A. Arduini, C. Borras, F. V. Pallardo, et al.. “Oral Administration of Vitamin C Decreases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Hampers Training-Induced Adaptations in Endurance Performance.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, no. 1 (2008): 142–149.

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Guitierrez, Sara Duare, Samule da Silva Agular, Lucas Pinheiro Barbosa, Patrick Anderson Santos, Larissa Alvew Macie, Patricio Lopes de Araujo Leite, Thiago Dos Santos Rosa, et al.. “Is Lifelong Endurance Training Associated with Maintaining Levels oof Testosterone, Interleukin-10, and Body Fat in Middle-Aged Males?” Journal of Clinical and Translational Research 7, no. 4 (2021): 450-455.

Hartgens, Fred, and Harm Kuipers. “Effects of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids in Athletes.” Sports Medicine 34, no. 8 (2004): 513-54.

Herda, Ashley A., and Omid Nabavizadeh. “Short-term Resistance Training in Older Adults Improves Muscle Quality: A Randomized Control Trial.” Experimental Gerontology 145 (2021): 111195.

Hong, A. Ram, and Sang Wan Kim. “Effects of Resistance Exercise on Bone Health.” Endocrinology and Metabolism (Seoul) 33, no. 4 (2018): 435-444.

Huxley, H. E. “Past, Present and Future Experiments on Muscle.” Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences. 355, no. 1396 (2020): 539–543. 

Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Protein Content of Common Foods.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Jordan, Chris. “The Standing 7-Minute Workout.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Kamram, Ghazal. “Physical Benefits of (Salah) Prayer – Strengthen the Faith and Fitness.” Journal of Novel Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation 2 (2018): 043-053.

Kemmler W., A. Weissenfels, S. Willert, M. Shojaa, S. von Stengel. A. Filipovic, H. Kleinöder, J. Berger, and M. Fröhlich. “Efficacy and Safety of Low Frequency Whole-Body Electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) to Improve Health-Related Outcomes in Non-athletic Adults. A Systematic Review.” Frontiers in Physiology 23, no. 9 (2018):573.

Kemmler, Wolfgang, Heinz Kleinöder, and Michael Fröhlich.” Editorial: Whole-Body Electromyostimulation: A Training Technology to Improve Health and Performance in Humans?” Frontiers in Physiology 26, no. 11 (2020): 523.

Klika, Brett, and Chris Jordan. “High-Intensity Circuit Training Using Body Weight Maximum Results with Minimal Investment.” ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal 17, no. 3 (2013): 8-13.

Kraemer, William J., Nicholas A RatamessShawn D. FlanaganJason P. ShurleyJanice S. Todd, and Terry C. Todd. “Understanding the Science of Resistance Training: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Sports Medicine 47, no. 12 (2017): 2415-2435.

Kreider, Richard B, Douglas S. KalmanJose AntonioTim N. ZiegenfussRobert WildmanRick CollinsDarren G. CandowSusan M. KleinerAnthony L. Almada, and Hector L. Lopez. “International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Safety and Efficacy of Creatine Supplementation in Exercise, Sport, and Medicine.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14 (2017): 18.

Larsson, Lars, Hans DegensMeishan LiLeonardo SalviatiYoung Il LeeWesley ThompsonJames L. Kirkland, and Marco Sandri. “Sarcopenia: Aging-Related Loss of Muscle Mass and Function.” Physiology Review 99, no. 1 (2019): 427-511.

Lazaro, R. J. “Effects of Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Training on Balance, Mobility and Lower Extremity Strength of Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Pilot Study.Allied Health 49, no. 2 (2020): e99-e103.

Lee, Se-Jin, Adam Lehar, Jessica U. Meir, Christina Koch, Andrew Morgan, Lara E. Warren, Renata Rydzik, et al.. “Targeting Myostatin/Activin A Protects Against Skeletal Muscle and Bone Loss During Spaceflight.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, no. 38 (2020): 23942-23951.

Lee, Stephanie. “Does It Matter How Many Reps You Do When You Work Out?” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Lichtenberg, Theresa, Simon von Stengel, Cornel Sieber, and Wolfgang Kemmler. “The Favorable Effects of a High-Intensity Resistance Training on Sarcopenia in Older Community-Dwelling Men with Osteosarcopenia: The Randomized Controlled FrOST Study.” Clinical Interventions in Aging. 14 (2019): 2173-2186.

Liu, C. J., and N. K. Latham. “Progressive Resistance Strength Training for Improving Physical Function in Older Adults (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Systematic Review 3 (2009): C D002759.

Ludwig, Oliver, Joshua BergerTorsten SchuhMarco Backfisch, Stephan Becker, and Michael Fröhlich. “Can A Superimposed Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Intervention Enhance the Effects of a 10-Week Athletic Strength Training in Youth Elite Soccer Players?” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 19, no. 3 (2020): 535-546.

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McCartney, N., A. L. Hicks, J. Martin, and C. E. Webber. “A Longitudinal Trial of Weight Training in the Elderly: Continued Improvements in Year 2.” Journal of Gerontology A Biological Science and Medical Science 51 (1996): B425-B433.

McKenna C. F., A. F. Salvador, R. L. Hughes, S. E. Scaroni, R. A. Alamilla, A. T. Askow, and S. A. Paluska. “Higher Protein Intake During Resistance Training Does Not Potentiate Strength, But Modulates Gut Microbiota, in Middle-Aged Adults: A Randomized Control Trial.American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 320, no. 5 (2021): E900-E913.

McPherron, Alexandra C., and Se-Jin Lee. “Double Muscling in Cattle Due to Mutations in the Myostatin Gene.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, no. 23 (1997): 12457-12461.

Mendonca, Goncalo, Carolina Vila-Chã, Carolina Teodósio, Andre D. Goncalves, Sandro R. Freitas, Pedro Mil-Homens, and Pedro Pezarat-Correia. “Contralateral Training Effects of Low-Intensity Blood-Flow Restricted and High-Intensity Unilateral Resistance Training.” European Journal of Applied Physiology. 121, no. 8 (2021): 2305-2321.

Mitchell, Cameron J., Amber M. MilanSarah M. MitchellNina ZengFarha RamzanPankaja Sharma, and Scott O Knowles. “The Effects of Dietary Protein Intake on Appendicular Lean Mass and Muscle Function in Elderly Men: A 10-Wk Randomized Controlled Trial.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106, no. 6 (2017): 1375-1383.

Morton, Robert W., Kevin T. MurphySean R. McKellarBrad J. SchoenfeldMenno HenselmansEric HelmsAlan A. Aragon, et al. “A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of the Effect of Protein Supplementation on Resistance Training-Induced Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Healthy Adults.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 52, no. 6 (2018): 376-384.s.

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Nelson, Arnold G., Joke Kollonen, Jason B. Winchester, Walter Kalani, Karen Peterson, Michael S. Kenly, and David A. Arnali. “A 10-week Stretching Program Increases Strength in the Contralateral Muscle.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 26, no. 3 (2012): 832-6.

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Remski, Matthew. “10 Things We Didn’t Know About Yoga Until This New Must-Read Dropped.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

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Smith, Tobie, Matthew Fedoruk, and Amy Eichner. “Performance-Enhancing Drug Use in Recreational Athletes.” American Family Physician 103, no. 4 (2021): 203-204.

Spalding, Kirsty L., Ratan D. Bhardwaj, Bruce A. Buchholz, Henrik David, and Jonas Frisén. “Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells in Humans.” Cell 122, no. 1 (2005): 133-43.

Stares, Aaron, and Mona Bains. “The Additive Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Exercise Training in an Aging Population: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy 43, no. 2 (2020) 99-112.

Stern, Marc. “The Fitness Movement and the Fitness Center Industry, 1960-2000.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Stöllberger, Claudia, and Josef Finsterer. “Side Effects of and Contraindications for Whole-Body Electro-Myo-Stimulation: A Viewpoint.” BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine 5, no. 1 (2019): e000619.  

Stone, M. H.. “Muscle Conditioning and Muscle Injuries. “Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 22, no. 4 (1990): 457-62.

Strasser, Barbara, Dominik Pesta, Jorn Rittweger, Johannes Burtscher, and Martin Burtscher. “Nutrition for Older Athletes: Focus on Sex-Differences.” Nutrients 13, no. 5 (2021): 1409.

Strobel N. A., J. M. Peake, A. Matsumoto, S. A. Marsh, J. S. Coombes, and G. D. Wadley. “Antioxidant Supplementation Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 43, no. 6 (2011): 1017–1024.

Stöllberger, Claudia, and Josef Finsterer. “Side Effects of and Contraindications for Whole-Body Electro-Myo-Stimulation: A Viewpoint.” BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine 5, no. 1 (2019): e000619.  

Strohacker, Kelley, Daniel Fazzino, Whitney L. Breslin, and Xiomeng Xu. “The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review.” Preventative Medicine Reports 2 (2015): 385-396.

Surrenda, David. “The Purpose of Yoga.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Symons, T. Brock, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Robert R. Wolfe, and Douglas Paddon-Jones. “A Moderate Serving of High-Quality Protein Maximally Stimulates Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis in Young and Elderly Subjects.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109, no. 9 (2009): 1582-6.  

Tan J., X. Shi, J. Witchalls, G. Waddington, Fu A. C. Lun, S.Wu, O.Tirosh, X. Wu, and J. J. Han. “Effects of Pre-exercise Acute Vibration Training on Symptoms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research  Strength Cond Res. 2020 Aug 12. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003789. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32796411

Tanaka, Hirofumi, and Douglas R. Seals. “Endurance Exercise Performance in Masters Athletes: Age-Associated Changes and Underlying Physiological Mechanisms. Journal of Physiology 586, no. 1 (2008): 55-63.

Thiebaud, R. S., J.P. Loenneke, C. A. Fahs, D. Kim, X. Ye, T. Abe, N. Nosaka, and M. G. Bemben. “Muscle Damage after Low-Intensity Eccentric Contractions with Blood Flow Restriction.Acta Physiologica Hungarica 101, no. 2 (2014): 150-7.

Tran, Alex. “The Buzz on Electromyostimulation (EMS).” Accessed October 21, 2021. 

Valle, Carl. “The Top 8 Isometric Exercises for Strength and Speed.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Van Roie, Evelien, Christophe DelecluseWalter CoudyzerSteven Boonen, and Ivan Bautmans. “Strength Training at High Versus Low External Resistance in Older Adults: Effects on Muscle Volume, Muscle Strength, and Force-Velocity Characteristics.” Experimental Gerontology  48, no. 11 (2013)” 1351-61.

Vowell, Cheyenne Green. “How to Become a Personal Trainer.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Weiss, Lawrence W, and Harvey D. Conex. “Differential Functional Adaptations to Short-Term Low-, Moderate-, and High-Repetition Weight Training.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Training 13, no. 3 (1999): 236-241. 

Wroblewski, Andrew A. P.. “Chronic Exercise Preserves Lean Muscle Mass in Masters Athletes.” Physician and Sports Medicine 39, no. 3 (2011): 172-178.  

Yazdi, Puya. “What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Zehr, E. Paul. “The Man of Steel, Myostatin, and Super Strength.” Accessed October 21, 2021.   

Zhou, S. “Chronic Neural Adaptations to Unilateral Exercise: Mechanisms of Cross Education.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 28, no. 4 (2000): 177-84.

Zoladz, Jerzy A. Muscle and Exercise Physiology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press, 2018.

Chapter 7 Human Culture

Amidor, Toby. “Muscle-Building Myths. What Men Get Wrong About Building Muscle.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Andersen, Jesper L., Peter Schjerling, and Bengt Saltin. “Muscle, Gene, and Athletic Performance.” Scientific American 283, no. 3(2000): 48-55.

Armstrong, Brock. “Do Amino Acids Build Bigger Muscles?” Accessed October 21, 2021.   

Arnold, Carrie. “Virus Pumps Up Male Muscles—in Mice.” Accessed October 20, 2021, 

Beauty, Jivaka. “Easy Calf Reduction Methods for Beautiful Legs.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Black, Ronald. “The Age of Sports – When Do Athletes Begin to Decline Within Their Sport?” Accessed October 21, 2021. 

Britannica. “Eugen Sandow.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Brown-Séquard C. E.. “The Effects Produced on Man by Subcutaneous Injections of Liquid Obtained from the Testicles of Animals.” Lancet 2 (1889): 105.

Brzeziańska, E., D. Domańska, and A. Jegier.Gene Doping in Sport – Perspectives and Risks.” Biology of Sport 31, no. 4 (2014): 251-9.

Caitlin, Oliver. “The WADA Prohibited List: A Guide and Temptation in Sports Nutrition.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Carreyrou, John. “Flap Over Doping Taints Another Group of Athletes – Pigeons.” Accessed October 21, 2021.  

Cranswick, Ieuan.  “Beyond The Muscles: Exploring the Meaning and Role of Muscularity in Identity.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Cuenca-Guerra, Ramon, Jose Luis Daza-Flores, and Ale Jalil Saade-Saade, “Calf Implants.” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 33, no. 4 (2009): 505-13.

Dandoy, Christopher, and Rani S. Gereige. “Performance-Enhancing Drugs.” Pediatrics in Review 33, no. 6 (2012): 265-272.

Davis, Josh. “Eugen Sandow: a Body Worth Immortalising.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Giaimo, Cara. “Were Colonial Men Obsessed with Their Calves?” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Gill, Michael. “A History of Stone Lifting and Strongman.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Government of Canada. “What Happens to Muscles in Space.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Greenemeier, Larry. “Unnatural Selection: Muscles, Genes and Genetic Cheats.” Accessed October 20, 2021. 

Howard, John: Mastering Cycling. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2010.

Huebner, Marianne, and Aris Perperoglou. “Performance Development from Youth to Senior and Age of Peak Performance in Olympic Weightlifting.” Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 1121.

Huntingford, Janice L, Brent N. KirnKerry CramerSabine Mann,and Joseph J. Wakshlag. “Evaluation of a Performance Enhancing Supplement in American Foxhounds During Eventing.” Journal of Nutritional Science 3 (2014): e24.

Karlsen, Trine,Ingeborg Megård Leinan, Fredrik Hjulstad Bækkerud, Kari Margrethe Lundgren, Atefe Tari, Sigurd Loe Steinshamn, Asbjørn Støylen, and Øivind Rognmo. “How to Be 80 Years Old and Have a VO2max of a 35 Year Old.” Case Reports in Medicine Accessed October 21, 2021.  

Klein, Alan M. Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Lapray, Dustin. “Lessons from a 95-Year-Old Bodybuilder.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Longman, Jeré. “85-Year-Old Marathoner Is So Fast That Even Scientists Marvel.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Malcata, Rita M., and Will G. Hopkins. “Variability of Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Systematic Review.” Sports Medicine 44, no. 12 (2014): 1763-74.

Malta, Elvis S., Yago M. DutraJames R. BroatchDavid J. Bishop, and Alessandro M. Zagatto.The Effects of Regular Cold-Water Immersion Use on Training-Induced Changes in Strength and Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine 1, no. 1 (2021): 161-174.

Melville, Herman. Typee. New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1846.

Momaya, Amit, Marc Fawal, and Reed Estes. “Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sports: A Review of the Literature.” Sports Medicine 45, no. 4 (2015): 517-31.

Morgan, Chance. “The History of Strength Training.” Accessed October 21, 2021.  

Mrs Daffodil Digresses. “Padding Ballet Dancers: 1881.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Murden, Sarah. “Bums, Tums and Downy Calves.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Murden, Sarah. “False Rumps!” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Park, Hyuncheol. “The Beauty of Men’s Calf.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Patek, S. N., J. E. Baio, B. L. Fisher, and A. V. Suarez. “Multifunctionality and Mechanical Origins: Ballistic Jaw Propulsion in Trap-Jaw Ants.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, no. 34 (2006): 12787-12792.

Petersen A. C. and J. J. Fyfe. “Post-exercise Cold Water Immersion Effects on Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Training and the Underlying Mechanisms in Skeletal Muscle: A Narrative Review.Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 8, no. 3 (2021): 660291.   

Pollok, Jamal. “Are Powerlifters Stronger Than Bodybuilders?” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Pollok, Jamal. “What Are the Main Powerlifting Movements?” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Robinson, Joshua. “How to Exhaust a Tour de France Racer: Ask Him to Take a Walk.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Robson, David. “Know Your Measurements for Bodybuilding Success.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Rogers,M. A., J. M. HagbergW. H. Martin 3rdA. A, Ehsaniand J. O. Holloszy. “Decline in VO2max with Aging in Master Athletes and Sedentary Men.” Journal of Applied Physiology 68, no. 5 (1990): 2195-9.

Schoenfeld, Brad J.. “The Mechanisms of Muscle Hypertrophy and Their Application to Resistance Training.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 24, no. 10 (2010): 2857-72.

Schwarzenegger. A. the New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding. Fireside, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1999.

Segre, Paolo S., Jean PotvinDavid E. CadeJohn CalambokidisJacopo Di ClementeFrank E. FishAri S. FriedlaenderWilliam T. Gough, et al.. “Energetic and Physical Limitations on the Breaching Performance of Large Whales.” eLife 9 (2020): e51760.

Shikina, Rob. “Oldest Female Marathoner Dies at 100.” Accessed October 21, 2021. 

Stone, Ken. “Dash of History: 100-year-old Sets 5 World Records.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Tan J., X. Shi, J. Witchalls, G. Waddington, Fu A. C. Lun, S.Wu, O.Tirosh, X. Wu X, and J. J. Han. “Effects of Pre-exercise Acute Vibration Training on Symptoms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research  2020 Aug 12. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003789. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32796411

Tanaka, Hirofumi, and Douglas R. Seals. “Endurance Exercise Performance in Masters Athletes: Age‐Associated Changes and Underlying Physiological Mechanisms.” Journal of Physiology 586, no. 1 (2008): 55-63.

The Economist. “Sport Is Still Rife with Doping.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Trappe, Scott, Erik HayesAndrew GalpinLeonard KaminskyBozena JemioloWilliam FinkTodd TrappeAnna JanssonThomas Gustafsson, and Per Tesch. “New Records in Aerobic Power Among Octogenarian Lifelong Endurance Athletes,” Journal of Applied Physiology 114, no. 1 (2013): 3-10.

Twardziak, Kellly. “10 Facts About Bodybuilding Legend Eugen Sandow.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Vance, John. “Effective Drug Policies for Racing Pigeons.” Accessed October 21, 2021.   

Vingren, Jakkob L., William J. Kraemer, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jeffrey M. Anderson, Jeff S. Volek, and Carl M. Marsh. “Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training: The Up-Stream Regulatory Elements.” Sports Medicine 40, no. 12 (2010): 1037-53.

Wernbom, Mathias, Jesper Augustsson, and Roland Thomee. “The Influence of Frequency, Intensity, Volume and Mode of Strength Training on Whole Muscle Cross-sectional Area in Humans.” Sports Medicine I37, no. 3 (2007):225-64.

White, Thomas A., and Nathan K. LeBrasseur. “Myostatin and Sarcopenia: Opportunities and Challenges – A Mini-Review.” Gerontology 60, no. 4 (2014): 289-93.

Wikipedia. “List of World Records in Masters Athletics.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Wise, J. Extreme fear: the science of your mind in danger. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

World Anti-Doping Agency. “World Anti-Doping Code International Standard Prohibited List 2021.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Yeager, Selene. “This Woman Just Biked at 184 MPH to Smash the Bicycle Speed Record.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Zehr, E. Paul. “The Man of Steel, Myostatin, and Super Strength.” Accessed October 21, 2021.   

Chapter 8 Discomforts and Diseases

Afonso, José, Filipe Manuel ClementeFábio Yuzo NakamuraPedro MorouçoHugo SarmentoRichard A. Inman, and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo. “The Effectiveness of Post-exercise Stretching in Short-Term and Delayed Recovery of Strength, Range of Motion and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Frontiers in Physiology 12 (2021): 677581.

Agamanolis, D. P., S. Dasu, and C. E. Krill Jr. “Tumors of Skeletal Muscle.” Human Pathology 17, no. 8 (1986): 778-95.

Agergaard, J., S. LethT. H. PedersenT. HarboJ. U. BlicherP. KarlssonL. ØstergaardH. Andersen, and H. Tankisi. “Myopathic Changes in Patients with Long-Term Fatigue After COVID-19.” Clinical Neurophysiology 132, no. 8 (2021): 1974-1981.

Allen, R. E., and K. A. Kirby. “Nocturnal Leg Cramps”. American Family Physician 86, no. 4 (2012): 350–355.

Armstrong, R. B. “Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscular Soreness: A Brief Review.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 16, no. 6 (1984): 529-38.

Betapudi, Venkaiah. “Life Without Double-headed Non-Muscle Myosin II Motor Proteins.” Frontiers in Chemistry 2 (2014): 45.

Bleakley, Chris, Suzanne McDonoughEvie GardnerG. David BaxterJ. Ty Hopkins, and Gareth W. Davison. “Cold-water Immersion (Cryotherapy) for Preventing and Treating Muscle Soreness After Exercise.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2021, no. 2 (2012): CD008262.

Boland, B. J., P. L. Silbert, R. V. Groover, P. C.Wollan, and M. D. Silverstein. “Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle Failure in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.” Pediatric Neurology 14, no. 1 (1996): 7-12.

Bunnell, Sterling. “Restoring Flexion to the Paralytic Elbow.” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 33, no. 3 (1951): 569.

Cai, Chunyu, Douglas C. Anthony, and Peter Pytel. “A Pattern-Based Approach to the Interpretation of Skeletal Muscle Biopsies.” Modern Pathology 32 (2018): 462–483.

Cairns, Simeon P. “Lactic Acid and Exercise Performance: Culprit or Friend?” Sports Medicine 36, no. 4 (2006): 279-91.

Carey, A. L., and B. A. Kingwell. “Novel Pharmacological Approaches to Combat Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Targeting Skeletal Muscle with ‘Exercise Mimetics’” Diabetologia 52 (2009): 2015-2026.

Choi, Ji Yun, Hyo Joon Kim, and Seong Yong Moon. “Management of the Paralyzed Face Using Temporalis Tendon Transfer via Intraoral and Transcutaneous Approach.” Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery i40, no. 1 (2018): 24.

Costello, Joseph T., Philip R. A. BakerGeoffrey M. MinettFrancois BieuzenIan B. Stewart, and Chris Bleakley. “Whole-Body Cryotherapy (Extreme Cold Air Exposure) for Preventing and Treating Muscle Soreness after Exercise in Adults.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 18, no. 9 (2015): CD010789.

Cuthbert, Scott C., and George J Goodheart, Jr. “On the Reliability and Validity of Manual Muscle Testing: A Literature Review.” Chiropractic and Osteopathy 15 (2007): 4.

Dhanapal, Raghu, T. R. Saraswathi, and Rajkumar N. Govind. “Cancer Cachexia.” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 1, no. 3 (2011):257-60.

Duan, Dongsheng, and Jerry R. Mendell. “Muscle Gene Therapy.” New York: Springer, 2019.

Fang, Wang, and Yasaman Nasir. “The Effect of Curcumin Supplementation on Recovery Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Physiotherapy Research 35, no. 4 (2021): 1768-1781.

Fede, Caterina, Carmelo Pirri, Chenglei Fan, Lucia Petrelli, Diego Guidolin, Raffaele De Caro, and Carla Stecco. “A Closer Look at the Cellular and Molecular Components of the Deep/Muscular Fasciae.” International Journal of Molecular Science 22, no. 3 (2021): 1141.

Fernández-Lázaro D., J. Mielgo-Ayuso, J. Seco Calvo, A. Córdova Martínez, A. Caballero García, and C. I. Fernandez-Lazaro. “Modulation of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Oxidative Markers by Curcumin Supplementation in a Physically Active Population: A Systematic Review.Nutrients 12, no. 2 (2020): 501.

Gawecki, Maciej. “Adjustable Versus Nonadjustable Sutures in Strabismus Surgery—Who Benefits the Most?” Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 2 (2020): 292-305.

Giuriato G., A. Pedrinolla, F. Schena, and M. Venturelli. “Muscle Cramps: A Comparison of the Two Leading Hypothesis.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 41 (2018): 89-95.

Heiss, Rafael, Christoph LutterJürgen FreiwaldMatthias W HoppeCasper GrimKlaus PoettgenRaimund ForstWilhelm BlochMoritz Hüttel, and Thilo Hotfiel.. “Advances in Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) – Part II: Treatment and Prevention.” Sportsverletzung Sportschaden 33, no. 1 (2019): 21-29.

Howell, J. N., G. Chleboun, and R. Conatser. “Muscle Stiffness, Strength Loss, Swelling and Soreness Following Exercise-Induced Injury in Humans.” Journal of Physiology 464 (1993): 183-196.

Huang, Huan, Wen-Xiang ChengYi-Ping HuJian-Hai ChenZheng-Tan Zheng, and Peng Zhang. “Relationship Between Heterotopic Ossification and Traumatic Brain Injury Why Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification.” Journal of Orthopaedic Translation 12 (2018): 16-25.

Kolata, Gina. “A Very Muscular Baby Offers Hope Against Diseases.” Accessed October 20, 2021.

Ma, Fenghao, Yingqi LiJinchao YangXidian LiNa Zeng, and RobRoy L. Martin. “The Effectiveness of Low Intensity Exercise and Blood Flow Restriction Without Exercise on Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review.” Physical Therapy in Sport 46 (2020): 77-88.

Machado, Aryane Flauzino, Paulo Henrique FerreiraJéssica Kirsch MichelettiAline Castilho de AlmeidaÍtalo Ribeiro LemesFranciele Marques VanderleiJayme Netto Junior, and Carlos Marcelo Pastre. “Can Water Temperature and Immersion Time Influence the Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Soreness? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine 46 (2016): 503-514.

Maron, Dina Fine. “CRISPR Gene Editing Shows Promise for Treating a Fatal Muscle Disease.” Accessed October 21, 2021. 

Maughan, R. J., and S. M. Shirreffs. “Muscle Cramping During Exercise: Causes, Solutions, and Questions Remaining.Sports Medicine 49, Supplement 2 (2019):115-124.

Meamarbashi, Abbas, and Ali Rajabi. “Preventive Effects of 10-Day Supplementation with Saffron and Indomethacin on the Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.” Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 25, no. 2 (2015): 105-12.

Miller, Kevin C., Gary W. MackKenneth L. KnightJ. Ty HopkinsDavid O. DraperPaul J. Fields, and Iain Hunter. “Reflex Inhibition of Electrically-Induced Muscle Cramps in Hypohydrated Humans.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 42 (2010): 953-961.

Minetto, Marco Alessandro, Aleš Holobar, Alberto Botter, and Dario Farina. “Origin and Development of Muscle Cramps.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 41, no. 1 (2013): 3-10.

Mueller, Amber L., Andrea O’NeillTakako I. JonesAnna LlachLuis Alejandro RojasParaskevi SakellariouGuido Stadler, et al.. “Muscle Xenografts Reproduce Key Molecular Features of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy.” Experimental Neurology 320 (2019): 113011.

Mundell, Ernie, and Steven Reinberg. “FDA Approves ‘Tongue Strengthening’ Device for Certain Sleep Apnea Patients.” Accessed October 21, 2021. eXiteOSA

Négyesi, János, Li Yin ZhangRui Nian JinTibor Hortobágyi, and Ryoichi Nagatomi. “A Below-Knee Compression Garment Reduces Fatigue-Induced Strength Loss but Not Knee Joint Position Sense Errors.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 121, no. 1 (2021): 219-229.

Okabe, Yuka Tsukagoshi, Shinobu ShimizuYukihiro SuetakeHisako Matsui-HiraiShizuka HasegawaKeisuke TakanariKazuhiro Toriyama,, et al.. “Biological Characterization of Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells Used for the Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence.” International Journal of Urology 28, no. 1 (2021): 115-124.

Petsko, Emily. “Why Do We Call a Leg Cramp a Charley Horse?” Accessed October 20,2021.

Puntillo, Filomena, Mariateresa GiglioAntonella PaladiniGaetano PerchiazziOmar ViswanathIvan UritsCarlo SabbàGiustino Varrassi, and Nicola Brienza. “Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Narrative Review.” Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease 12 (2021): 1759720X21995067.

Ranchordas, Mayur K., David RogersonHora Soltani, and Joseph T. Costello. “Antioxidants for Preventing and Reducing Muscle Soreness After Exercise.” Cochrane Database Systematic Review 12, no. 12 (2017): CD009789.

Robergs, Robert A., Farzenah Ghiasvand, and Daryl Parker. “Biochemistry of Exercise Induced Metabolic Acidosis.” American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 287 (2004): R502–R516.

Romero-Parra, Nuria, Rocío CupeiroVictor M. Alfaro-MagallanesBeatriz RaelJacobo Á. Rubio-AriasAna B. PeinadoPedro J. Benito, and IronFEMME Study Group. “Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage During the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 35, no. 2 (2021): 549-561.

Roth, Stephen M. “Why Does Lactic Acid Build Up in Muscles? And Why Does It Cause Soreness?” Accessed October 20, 2021,

Rutecki, G. Wf., A. J. Ognibene, and J. D. Geib. “Rhabdomyolysis in Antiquity. From Ancient Descriptions to Scientific Explication.” Pharos 61, no. 2 (1998): 18-22.

Saber, Mohamed. “Myositis Ossificans.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Sathasivam, Sivakumar, and Bryan Lecky. “Statin Induced Myopathy.” British Medical Journal 337 (2008): a2286

Schleip, Robert, Giulio Gabbiani, Ian Wilke, Ian Naylor, Boris Hinz, Adio Zorn, Heike Jaeger, Rainer Breul, Stephanie Schreiner, and Werner Klinger. “Fascia Is Able to Actively Contract and May Thereby Influence Musculoskeletal Dynamics: A Histolochemical and Mechanographic Investigation.” Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019): 336.

Schwellnus, M.P., J. Nicol, R. Laubscher R, and T.D. Noakes. “Serum Electrolyte Concentrations and Hydration Status Are Not Associated with Exercise Associated Muscle Cramping (EAMC) in Distance Runners.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 38, no. 4 (2004): 488–492. 

Selva-O’Callaghan, Albert, Marcelo Alvarado-CardenasIago Pinal-FernándezErnesto Trallero-AraguásJosé Cesar MilisendaMaría Ángeles MartínezAna MarínMoisés Labrador-HorrilloCándido Juárez, and Josep María Grau-Junyent.. “Statin-induced Myalgia and Myositis: An Update on Pathogenesis and Clinical Recommendations.” Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 14, no. 3 (2018): 215-224.

Stefanelli, Lucas, Evan J LockyerBrandon W. CollinsNicholas J. SnowJulie CrockerChristopher KentKevin E. Power, and Duane C. Button. “Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Topical Analgesic Alter Corticospinal Excitability of the Biceps Brachii.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 51, no. 11 (2019): 2344-2356.

Sullivan, M. P., S. J. TorresS. Mehta, and J. Ahn. “Heterotopic Ossification after Central Nervous System Trauma.  A Current Review.” Bone and Joint Research 2, no. 3 (2013): 51-57.

Sulzer, N. U., M. P. Schwellnus, and T. D. Noakes. “Serum Electrolytes in Ironman Triathletes with Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramping.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37, no. 7 (2005): 1081–1085.

Swash M., D. Czesnik, and M. de Carvalho. “Muscle Cramp: Causes and Management.” European Journal of Neurology 26, no. 2 (2019): 214-221.

Thilo, Jürgen FreiwaldMatthias Wilhelm HoppeChristoph LutterRaimund ForstCasper Grim, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Hüttel, and Rafael Heiss. “Advances in Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): Part I: Pathogenesis and Diagnostics.” Sportsverletzung Sportschaden 32, no. 4 (2019): 243-250.

Tiniakou, Eleni. “Statin-Associated Autoimmune Myopathy: Current Perspectives.” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 16 (2000): 483-492.

Torres, Patrick A., John A. Helmstetter, Adam M. Kayne, and Alan David Kaye. “Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment.” Ochsner Journal 15, no. 1 (2015): 58-69.

Varghese, B. K., P. Babu, and T. Roy. “Microsurgical Free Muscle Flaps for Reconstruction of Post-Traumatic Complex Tissue Defects of Foot.” Medical Journal of the Armed Forces of India 72, no. 2 (2016): 131-139.

Walton, Zeke, Milton Armstrong, Sophia Traven, and Lee Leddy. “Pedicled Rotational Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius Flaps: Surgical Technique.” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 25, no. 11 (2017): 744-751.

Wan, Jing-jing, Zhen QinPeng-yuan WangYang Sun, and Xia Liu. “Muscle Fatigue: General Understanding and Treatment.” Experimental and Molecular Medicine 49, no. 10 (2017): e384.     

Ward, Natalie C., Gerald F. Watts, and Robert H. Eckel. “Statin Toxicity Mechanistic Insights and Clinical Implications.” Circulation Research 124 (2019): 328–350.

Zhang, Yuanfan, Oliver D. King, Fedik Rahimov, Takako I. Jones, Christopher W. Ward, Jaclyn P. Kerr, and Naili Liu. “Human Skeletal Muscle Xenograft As a New Preclinical Model For Muscle Disorders.” Human Molecular Genetics 23, no. 12 (2014): 3180-8.  

Chapter 9 Zoological Survey

Boas, J. E. V., and Simon Paulli. The Elephant’s Head; Studies in the Comparative Anatomy of the Organs of the Head of the Indian Elephant and Other Mammals. Copenhagen: Carlsberg Fund, 1908-1925.

Boswall, Jeffery. “How Birds Sing.” Accessed October 21, 2021.

Britannica. “Syrinx Bird Anatomy.” Accessed October 20, 2021. 

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Kurth, Elizabeth G., Valera V. Peremyslov, Hannah L. Turner, Kira S. Makarova, Jaime Iranzo, Sergei L. Mekhedov, Eugene V. Koonin, and Valerian V. Dolja. “Myosin-driven Transport Network in Plants.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, no. 8 (2017): E1385-E1394.

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McGrath, Jamis, Roy Pallabi, and Benjamin J. Perrin. “Stereocilia Morphogenesis and Maintenance Through Regulation of Actin Stability.” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology. 65, (2017): 88–95.  

Mejillano, Merisan R., Shin-ichiro Kojima, Derek Anthony Applewhite, Frank B. Gertler, Tatyana M. Svitkina, and Gary G. Borisy. “Lamellipodial Versus Filopodial Mode of the Actin Nanomachinery Pivotal Role of the Filament Barbed End.” Cell 118, no. 3 (2004): 1163-373.

Möller, Jens, Tessa LühmannMamta ChabriaHeike Hall, and Viola Vogel. “Macrophages Lift Off Surface-bound Bacteria Using a Filopodium-lamellipodium Hook-and-shovel Mechanism.” Science Report 3, (2013): 2884.

Morell, Maria, A. Wayne VoglLonneke L. IJsseldijkMarina Piscitelli-DoshkovLing TongSonja OstertagMarissa Ferriera, et al.. “Echolocating Whales and Bats Express the Motor Protein Prestin in the Inner Ear: A Potential Marker For Hearing Loss.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020): 429.   

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Nangole, Ferdinand, and George W. Agak. “Keloid Pathology: Fibroblast or Inflammatory Disorder?” JPRAS Open, 22, (2019): 44-54.

Narita, Keisha, and Sen Takeda. “Cilia in the Choroid Plexus: Their Roles in Hydrocephalus and Beyond.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 9 (2015): 39.

Nickel, M., C. Scheer, J. U. Hammel, J. Herzen, F. Beckmann. “The Contractile Sponge Epithelium Sensu lato – Body Contraction of the Demosponge Tethya wilhelma Is Mediated by the Pinacoderm.” Journal of Experimental Biology 214, no. 10 (2011): 1692.

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Poppinga, Simon, Carmen Weisskopf, Anna Sophia Westermeier, Tom Masselter, and Thomas Speck. “Fastest Predators in the Plant Kingdom: Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of Suction Traps Found in the Largest Genus of Carnivorous Plants.” AoB Plants 8 (2015): plv140.

Raidt, Johanna, Claudius WernerTabea MenchenGerard W. DoughertyHeike OlbrichNiki T. LogesRalf Schmitz, Petra Pennekamp,and Heymut Omran. “Ciliary Function and Motor Protein Composition of Human Fallopian Tubes.” Human Reproduction 30, no. 12 (2015): 2871-80.

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Schindler, Tony D., Lu ChenPaul LebelMuneaki Nakamura, and Zev Bryant. “Engineering Myosins for Long-Range Transport on Actin Filaments.” Nature Nanotechnology 9 (2014): 33–38

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